Polyhydramnios And Oligohydramnios

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Oligohydramnios
Oligohydramnios

Polyhydramnios And Oligohydramnios

This article presents the causes, outcomes, and treatments of polyhydramnios and oligohydramnios.

Polyhydramnios

Definition of Polyhydramnios:

Is an excessive amount of amniotic fluid more than 2000 ml.

Is an excessive amount of amniotic fluid more than 2000 ml.

The exact cause is unknown, it is associated with:

  • Maternal disease as DM, Renal disease.
  • Multiple pregnancies.
  • Fetal abnormalities that affect the swallowing mechanism.
  • The condition leads to preterm delivery, malpresentation, and cord prolapse and abruptio placenta, thus increasing maternal mortality.

Clinical manifestations:

  • Excessive uterine enlargement, fundal height increases out of proportion to gestational age.
  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Difficulty finding a comfortable sleeping position.
  • Difficult to hear FHR and palpate fetus.
  • Pain in the abdomen, back, and thighs due to increasing pressure.
  • Difficult ambulating.
  • Varicosities.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

Management:

  • Hospitalization, if the mother is dyspneic or in pain.
  • Transabdominal or vaginal amniocentesis with aid of sonography and careful monitoring of vital signs. remove the fluid slowly to avoid abruptio placenta.
  • Offer support by explaining procedures.
  • Encourage the women to rest on the side in a semi-recumbent position to increase blood flow to uterus and fetus and to relieve symptoms.
  • Watch carefully for signs of the abruption placenta, abnormal presentation, and post-partum hemorrhage.

Oligohydramnios :

Definition of Oligohydramnios :

Is a small amount of amniotic fluid less than 400 ml.

It is associated with:
a- Fetal renal agenesis.

b- Postmaturity.

Clinical manifestations:

  • Small uterine size.
  • Labour may be premature.
  • Uterine contraction may be ineffectual and labor prolonged.
  • Fetal hypoxia may occur because of cord compression.

Management:

  • Monitor fetal status carefully during pregnancy and labor.
  • Monitor the woman for labor complications.

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