Pneumonia: Definition, Types, Symptoms, Treatment
Pneumonia: is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma with a microbial agent or an infection that inflames in one or both lungs. The lungs may fill with fluid or pus. it’s an acute illness characterized by a productive cough, pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
- The most common cause of death from infectious diseases.
- Classified according to the causative agent.
- Bacterial could be caused by radiation, ingestion of chemicals, and aspiration.
- Lobar pneumonia: a substantial portion of one or more lobes is involved.
- Bronchopneumonia: pneumonia distributed in the patchy fashion. it originates in one, or more localized areas within the bronchi and extends to the surrounding parenchyma. it is more common than lobar pneumonia.
1- Conditions such as Cancer or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
2- Decreased immunity as:
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
Temporary acquired immune deficiencies.
HIV, which causes AIDS.
3- Smoking: disrupts mucociliary, and macrophage activity.
4- Bed ridden patients.
5- Depressed cough reflex and aspiration of the foreign body.
7- Unconscious pt. old pt. ( depressed cough reflex).
8- Other diseases as:
(Congestive heart failure (CHF), Diabetes mellitus (DM), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), influenza, cystic fibrosis).
What are the main causes of pneumonia?
1- Viruses as Influenza (flu) A and B viruses( most common in the adult)or Respiratory syncytial virus, in addition, rhinoviruses, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses.
2- Bacteria – most commonly pneumonia ( diplococcus pneumonia ) is normally presented in the throat and Staphylococcus aureus.
4- Mycoplasma pneumonia.
What are the early signs and
1- Severe pain stabbing in the chest worsens by breathing and coughing.
2- Rapid increase in fever up to ( 39.5°C – 40.5 °C) (103.1°F-104.9°F).
3- Shaking chills.
4- A Painful cough usually productive of rusty exudates sputum.
5- Increase respiratory rate, shallow rapid breathing.
6- Orthopnea, dyspnea. cyanosis and restlessness.
7- If not treated delirium might occur.
How is pneumonia diagnosed in adults?
- The full history of the patient helps in diagnosis.
- A Physical examination as auscultation and listening to the internal sounds of the lung and measuring vital signs.
- Culture and sensitivity of sputum.
- X-Ray studies.
- A complete blood count (CBC).
What is the best treatment for pneumonia?
1- Antibiotics ( after Culture and sensitivity).
2- Supportive therapy:-
- Bed rest.
- Fluids.PO or I.V.
- Oxygen therapy through a mask or nasal cannula.
- Suctioning sputum if needed.
- Warm moist inhalation is helpful to decrease bacterial irritation.
- Tracheostomy ” is a surgical procedure which consists of making an incision on the anterior aspect of the neck and opening a direct airway through an incision in the trachea” if the airway is obstructed by captious secretion.
4- Decrease fever for example :
Firstly cold compresses and secondly acetaminophen (The average normal body temperature is 98.6°F (37°C)).
What happens if pneumonia goes untreated?
Serious complications will occur when the treatment is not received:
- Congestive heart failure (CHF).
- Empyema ( collection of pus in the pleural space).
- Pleurisy ( inflammation of pleura ).
- Septicemia (blood poisoning).
- Atelectasis ( collapse of the lung tissue due to plugging of a bronchus by mucus).
- Hypertension and shock.
- Otitis media.