Laryngitis And Laryngeal Cancer Definition, Signs

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Laryngitis And Laryngeal Cancer
Laryngitis And Laryngeal Cancer

Laryngitis And Laryngeal Cancer

Laryngitis And Laryngeal Cancer
before the description, we will explain the anatomy of the larynx


Larynx ( voice box ) is lined (except for vocal cords ) by a ciliated mucous membrane, on each lateral wall of the laryngeal cavity are tow horizontally placed folds of mucous membrane, they are:-The larynx is made of cartilages (thyroid, cricoid and arytenoids cartilage ) held together by ligaments.

  • Ventricular folds ( false folds ) above and down.
  • Vocal folds ( true ) below.
  • Vocal folds vibrate producing sounds that are molded by the palate, tongue, teeth, and lips.


Laryngitis :

Definition:

Laryngitis is an inflammation and swelling of the mucous membrane lining the larynx.

Etiology:

  • Infection that spread from other parts of the upper respiratory system.
  • Excessive or improper use of the voice.
  • Smoking.
  • Exposure to dust, and chemical.
  • Usually due to viral infection, bacterial may be secondary.
  • Onset may be associated with exposure to sudden temperature change, usually associated with rhinitis or nasopharyngitis.

Signs and symptoms :

  • Hoarseness.
  • A cough.
  • Throat irritation.
  • Fever, headache and muscle ache.

Laryngeal Cancer

Definition:

Tumor of the larynx. most common in people over 45 years, more in men than women . ( 8 times more in male ) potentially curable if detected early.

Etiology:

  • Chronic Laryngitis.
  • Irritation such as alcohol, cigarette smoking, and industrial pollution.
  • Exposure to asbestos, wood, leathers, and metals.
  • Habitual overuse of voice.
  • Family history.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Persistent hoarseness, voice may be harsh and low in pitch.
  • Lump in the throat.
  • Dysphagia, dyspnea and foul breath ( later symptoms).
  • Pain and burning in the throat when talking, drinking the hot liquid and citrus juice.
  • Weakness, weight loss, and anemia ( if advanced).

Diagnosis:

1-  History and physical assessment of the head and neck.

2- Laryngoscopy to inspect the area.
3- X-ray of soft tissues.

4-biopsy to examine all areas of the larynx.

5- lymph node biopsy of the neck and thyroid gland is palpated.

Treatment:

  • Removal of a tumor alone, or the entire larynx ” laryngectomy”.
  • Radiation: good result in pt. that has only one cord affected, pt. normally retains voice . could be used pre-op to decrease the size of a tumor.
  • Surgery: laryngectomy ( may be partial, supraglottic, or total).

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