Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy

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Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy

Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy

Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy: Is hypochromic microcytic anemia that occurs when iron stores are inadequate to support normal erythropoiesis.

WHO Standard: anemia during pregnancy is defined as Hb /<11g/1dl.
It is the most common nutritional anemia worldwide and accounts for 75% of all anemia’s diagnosed during pregnancy.
Almost all pregnancies are associated with some degree of iron depletion.
If iron depletion becomes severe iron deficiency anemia occurs.
The major reason for poor iron stores is thought to be a menstrual loss.
Pregnancy places a large demand on iron balance and can’t be met with usual diet . in absence of iron supplementation, iron deficiency develops.

High-risk population for iron deficiency anemia:

Low socioeconomic status.

Limited education.

Women with a history of menorrhagia.

Diet deficient in meat and ascorbic acid.

Regular use of aspirin.

Adolescent pregnancy.

Multiple pregnancies.

Successive pregnancies.

Factors affecting iron absorption :

1 iron content of the meal.

2 the chemical from iron ( iron is absorbed in the ferrous state in the duodenum and proximal small intestine).

3 the iron status of the individual.

4 composition of ingested food.

Effects of pregnancy on iron metabolism :

1. maternal effects :
– Symptoms associated with iron deficiency anemia include fatigue, irritability, palpitation, dizziness, headaches, breathlessness, and stomatitis.

– In severe cases high output congestive heart failure.

– Pica: in the ingestion of various substances that have no dietary value is the striking manifestation of iron deficiency. ( pagophagia (ice) , geophagia (clay) and amyophagia (starch) ) are common examples of pica.

Maternal anemia has been associated with placental gigantism.

2. Fetal and neonatal effects :

– Controversy exists.

– All increase in frequency of preterm delivery, low birth weight infants and stillbirth.

– The outcome is related to the gestational age when maternal iron deficiency is diagnosed.

– The fetus store enough iron to meet requirements for 3-6 months after birth.

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