HYPERTENSION ( Silent killer ) HTN

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HYPERTENSION ( Silent killer ) HTN

Hypertension disease: The pressure that blood applies to the inner walls of the arteries.

Normal blood pressure: systolic (top number) equal to or less than 119 mmHg and diastolic (lower number) equal to or less than 79 mmHg.

Pre-hypertension: systolic 120-139 mmHg or diastolic 80-89 mmHg.

Stage 1: systolic 140-159 mmHg or diastolic 90-99 mmHg
Stage 2: systolic greater than or equal to 160 mmHg or diastolic greater than or equal 100 mmHg.

The tow type of HTN :

Primary Hypertension

Primary Hypertension: is characterized by sustained elevation of diastolic blood pressure over of 90 mmHg.

Unknown cause. it affects 90% of Hypertensive patients

Secondary Hypertension

caused by:

1- enlargement of the adrenal gland ” pheochromocytoma “

2 – Eclampsia: convulsions occur in a pregnant woman suffering from high blood pressure.

3 – Congenital heart anomalies

4- Disease of the kidney: any kidney disorder causes high blood pressure due to an accumulation of salts and minerals in the body as a result of the inability of the kidney to be filtered from the blood.

Malignant Hypertension:

Specific term used to describe the condition when has a sudden onset and is followed by severe symptoms and complications the factors are:

  • Age: old age more than younger.
  • Obesity: Body Mass Index (BMI) is 30 or higher.
  • Coffee intake: coffee has a temporary effect on high blood pressure, but studies and studies have indicated that they permanently affect the walls of blood vessels or inhibit the hormones that give flexibility to the walls of blood vessels in the human body.
  • Smoking: the nicotine in cigarettes has a negative effect on blood vessels, leading to atherosclerosis.
  • Drug : there are many medications that cause high blood pressure so be careful when taking non-prescription drugs from your doctor
  • Emotional Disturbances: prolonged emotional disturbance leads to an irreversible increase in blood pressure.
  • Sex, affect female more than male.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Dizziness, fatigue, insomnia (headache not common).
  • Epistaxis: bleeding from the nose (which are not caused by bruising).
  • Blurred vision: the examination should be examined to make sure there are no eye problems
  • May experience anginal pain and dyspnea.
  • Renal symptoms: Including elevated B U N nocturia and creatinine.

Possible complications occur:

  • – Prolonged elevation in blood pressure damage blood vessels in the eyes, so that it will lead to vision problems.Coronary occlusion
  • Congestive heart failure (C.H.F)
  • Renal Failure.
  • Stroke.

Diagnostic evaluation:

  • Health history: healthy history is taken to avoid having problems in the body organs that are the cause of high blood pressure such as kidney problems, glands problems or congenital heart defects
  • Physical examination.
  • Fundus exam: a diagnostic procedure for hypertensive retinopathy.
  • ECG ( electro cardiogram ).
  • Urine analysis { protein in urine }.
  • Kidney function test: urea, creatinine.


Medicines used in the treatment of blood pressure should be under specialist supervision

1- Antihypertensive drug

  • Diuretics ex:
  • lasix.
  • Aldactone.
  • Methyldopa.
  • Chlorothiazide.
  • Hydralazine.
  • Propranolol.

2- Vasodilators.

3- Low salt diet.

4- Decrease stress and anxiety.

5- Regular exercise.





  1. Idris Enoch Sasaka says

    A real silent killer that millions worldwide rarely detect!

  2. Idris Enoch Sasaka says

    A real silent killer that millions worldwide rarely detect!

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