Diarrhea: Definition, Causes And Treatment
Acute diarrhea ( gastroenteritis): is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines caused by various bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens.
Diarrhea: increase frequency, fluidity, and volume of feces.
As for why diarrheal disorders are serious during infancy? this is because dehydrated much more quickly than adults.
Acute and infectious factors:
– Bacterial such as E.coli, salmonella, Shigella and Vibro cholera.
– Viral such as Rotavirus and Adeovirus .
– Fungal such as candida enteritis.
– Parasitic such as Giardia Lamblia.
– Normal flora after ingestion of antibiotic.
– Non-infectious factors.
– Allergy to certain foods.
– Metabolic disorders ( celiac disease ).
– The unsuitable formula for age.
– Environmental factors.
– The rise of atmospheric temperature.
– Poor sanitation.
– Exposure to cold drafts.
– Low socio-economical status.
– Clinical manifestations:
– Greenish to yellow-green in color.
– Loose and fluid in consistency.
– May contain pus, mucus or blood.
– Frequency various from 2 to 20 time.
– Fever, anorexia, vomiting, rapid respiration, irritability, and general weakness.
– Poor skin turgor, and dry mucous membrane.
– Decreased urinary output.
– Sunken eyes and anterior fontanel.
– Rapid pulse, low blood pressure.
– Dry mouth, thirst.
– Loss of weight.
– Electrolyte imbalance.
– Health history.
– General physical appearance.
Laboratory studies :
– Serum electrolytes .
– Arterial blood gases analysis.
– CBC ( high HCT ) .
– Urine and stool analysis and culture.
– Health education for mothers.
– Enteric isolation precautions to prevent the spread of infection.
– Maintain hydration.
– Supportive care.
Oral Rehydration Solution:
– Indication for all cases of dehydration as long as the child strong to drink.
– Symptomatic antidiarrheal drugs are usually not recommended.
– Anti-emetic drugs are not indicated.
– Antibiotic in the treatment of diarrhea.