Croup and Epiglottitis Treatment And Complication

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Croup and Epiglottitis

Croup and Epiglottitis

In this article we will know the difference between Croup and Epiglottitis

Croup

Croup is acute laryngotracheobronchitis, laryngotracheitis ” viral croup ” is the most common from infectious croup.

Causative agent:

Parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus during epidemics and rhinovirus.

Age and incidence:

3 month to 3-5 years in cold weather.

Clinical manifestations:

– Onset is gradual and progresses slowly, following 1 to several days after URTI.

– A brassy cough, hoarseness of voice and inspiratory stridor.

– Low-grade fever.

– Increase respiratory and pulse rate.

– Restlessness, hypoxia, and cyanosis.

Diagnostic evaluation:
History and physical examination.

Later sign of increased PaCO2 ” blood gases analysis”.

Normal to mild leukocytosis.

X-ray of the neck ( subglottic edema).

Treatment:

Supportive therapy.

High humidification with oxygen.

Increase fluid intake ” good hydration”.

Racemic epinephrine nebulizer.

Minimal handling.

Complication:

Airway obstruction ” need nasotracheal intubation.

Epiglottitis

Causative agent:

Caused mainly by H. Influenza, other agents include pneumococci and staph aureus.

Age:- 3-10 years with seasonal variations.

Clinical manifestation:

– Onset and progression are rapid.

– High fever, aphonia, drooling and inspiratory stridor.

– Irritability with the hyperextended neck.

– Cherry red epiglottis.

– Refusal to eat.

– Intercostal retraction.

Diagnostic evaluation:

– History and physical examination.

– Leukocytosis.

– X-Ray neck ” epiglottic edema”.

– ABG analysis ” increased PaCO2 at the late stage.

Treatment:

– Medical emergency ” endotracheal intubation”.

– Cool humidified oxygen.

– Antibiotic therapy.

– Quit room and bed rest.

– Increase fluids.

– Observe for signs of respiratory distress.

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