Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

0 26
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Definition of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: group of respiratory disorders affecting the expiratory airflow, inspiratory airflow might be affected.


1. Chronic Bronchitis.

2. Pulmonary Emphysema.


– Excessive accumulation of mucus and secretions block the airway as in bronchitis and bronchiolitis.

– Destruction of the walls of the alveoli leads to impaired CO2, O2 exchange as in emphysema.

Related factors :

– Genetic: lake of enzyme inhibitors that prevent the destruction of lung tissue by certain enzymes.

Environmental: as smoking, respiratory infection.

Air pollution, and allergy.

The process takes 20-30 years to develop, it progresses slowly, and the result is impaired ventilation.

Chronic Bronchitis:

A serious disease that is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus by the bronchial glands as well as chronic or recurrent respiratory infection.


Air pollution

Cigarette smoking

Chronic infection of the airway.

Signs and symptoms:

1. Chronic productive cough.

2. Thick white mucus that might change to purulent copious and blood-streaked mucus.

3. Recurrent acute respiratory infection.


1. History.

2. ABGs.

3. Chest X-ray.

4. Pulmonary function studies.


– Palliative treatment to relieve symptoms with an emphasis on avoidance of factors that trigger irritation of the bronchial mucosa.

– Stop smoking.

– Avoid chemical allergens.

– Antibiotics to treat recurrent bacterial infections.

– Bronchodilators to relieve spasm.

– Adequate oxygenation to promote alveolar ventilation .

Avoid respiratory irritant.

Pulmonary Emphysema:
A condition characterized by abnormal distention of air spaces with the destruction of the alveolar wall.

Smoking the major cause.

Several factors lead to airway obstruction:
– Inflammation and swelling of the bronchi.

– Increased mucus production.

– Loss of elastic recoil of the airway.

– A collapse of bronchioles.

– Redistribution of air to the functioning alveoli.

Signs and symptoms:


Patient has the barrel chest.

A chronic cough, wheezing, short of breathing and tachypnea.

Distended neck veins.

Decreased breath sounds with rhonchi, and prolonged expiration.


– History.

– CBC.

– ABGs.

– CXR.


1. Bronchodilators: as aminophylline, salbutamol.

2. Aerosol therapy: as saline and bronchodilator or my Celtics.

3. Treatment of infection: use antibiotics.

4. Corticosteroids: used as the bronchodilator and decrease edema.

5. Oxygen therapy at a low rate.

Leave A Reply

Your email address will not be published.