Chickenpox And Diphtheria: Diagnosis And Treatment

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Chickenpox And Diphtheria 

Chickenpox ( Varicella )
Chickenpox ( Varicella )

Chickenpox And Diphtheria

Chickenpox ( Varicella )

Agent: Varicella Zoster.

Source: secretion of the respiratory tract, to a lesser degree skin lesion.

Most common age: 2-8 years.

Transmission: direct contact, droplet spread, and contaminated objects.

Incubation period: 2-3 weeks.

Period of communicability: 1 day prior to the first lesson to the last vesicle is dried.

Clinical manifestations :

  • Slight fever, malaise, anorexia.
  • Rash highly pruritic begins as macule rapidly progress to papule and then vesicles surrounded by the erythematous base breaks easily and form crusts in the face and proximal extremities.
  • Irritability.

Treatment :

  • Anti-viral ( acyclovir ).
  • Varicella zoster immunoglobulin.
  • Antihistamine.
  • Skin care.

Complication :

  • Secondary bacterial infections . ( abscess , cellulites ).
  • Encephalitis, due to viremia.

Diphtheria 

Agent: Corynebacterium diphtheria.

Source: discharge from the mucous membrane of nose, nasopharynx, skin and other lesions of infected person and carriers.

Transmission: direct contact, droplet spread by sneezing or coughing and contaminated object.

Incubation period: 2-5 days.

Period of communicability: 2-4 weeks.

Incidence: increase in winter and autumn.

Diagnostic test: culture from nose and throat.

Clinical manifestations :

vary according to the anatomic location of pseudo-membrane.

  1. Nasal: common cold and discharge, low-grade fever whitish-grey membrane on nasal septum, epistaxis.
  2. Tonsillar/pharyngeal: white or grey membrane on tonsils, uvula and soft palate, low-grade fever, anorexia, general malaise.
  3. laryngeal: potential airway obstruction, fever, cough, and respiratory difficulty.
  4. Non-respiratory: eye ear and rarely skin.

Treatment :

Anti-toxin for diphtheria.

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