Anemia During Pregnancy Causes And Treatment

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ANEMIA in PREGNANCY

Anemia During Pregnancy

Anemia During Pregnancy
– During pregnancy there is a 36% increase in the blood volume, the maximum is reached at 34 weeks gestation. Normal hematological events associated with pregnancy.

– The plasma volume increases 47-50 % and RBSs mass Increases only 17 % and reaches its maximum at term.

– There is relative hemodilution throughout pregnancy, and this reaches its maximum at 28 – 34 weeks.

This dilution effect lowers the Hb, HCT, and RBCs count, it causes no change in the MCV or MCH.

Definitions 
– Hb value below the lower limits of normal not explained by the state of hydration.

– Anemia during pregnancy 11 or 10.5 g/dl.

– Anemia is defined as the reduction in the total circulating red blood cells.

– 20 – 60 % of prenatal patients will be found to be anemic at sometimes during pregnancy.

Causes of anemia during pregnancy:

1- Acquired:
– Iron deficiency anemia.

– Anemia caused by acute blood loss.

– Anemia of inflammation or malignancy.

– Megaloblastic anemia.

– Acquired hemolytic anemia.

– Aplastic or hypoplastic anemia.

2- Hereditary:
– Thalassemia.

– Sickle cell hemoglobinopathies.

– Other hemoglobinopathies.

– Hemolytic anemia Hereditary.

Red blood cell disorders during pregnancy:
1- Decreased erythrocyte production.
– Iron deficiency.

– Thalassemia.

– Chronic disease.

– Bone marrow failure.

– Inflammation process.

– Malignancy.

– Folate deficiency.

– Vit b12 deficiency.

2- Increase erythrocyte loss.
– Hemolytic anemia.

– Chemical toxicity.

– Hemoglobinopathies.

– Clinical presentation.

Symptoms caused by anemia are those resulting from :

1 – Tissue hypoxia: fatigue, weakness, pallor, and exertional dyspnea.

2 – Cardiovascular system attempts to compensate for the anemia: palpitation and tachycardia.

3 – an underlying disease:
– Chronic infection.

– Chronic renal disease.

– Chronic liver disease.

– Multiple pregnancies.

Severe anemia is associated with :

– Congestive heart failure.

– Multi-organ failure.

– Tissue hypoxia.


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